پزشکی فردی: تحولی جدید در مراقبت از بیمار به سمت پیش بینی و پیشگیری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات بیوشیمی و بیوفیزیک، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 شرکت صنایع شیمیایی دارویی ارسطو، فرهنگستان علوم جمهوری اسلامی ایران، شاخه شیمی.

چکیده

پزشکی فردی، بر طراحی درمان های پزشکی بر اساس ویژگی های فردی از هر بیمار متمرکز است. البته این به معنای طراحی و ساخت داروی خاص و یا دستگاه های پزشکی منحصر به یک فرد نیست، بلکه دسته بندی افراد به زیر جمعیت هایی است که در حساسیت به یک بیماری خاص و یا پاسخ به درمان خاص متفاوتند. تفاوت های افراد بر پایه داده های بالینی و علوم او میکس توسط دانش بیوانفورماتیک شناسایی شده و امکان تشخیص زودهنگام و غربالگری افراد دارای پتانسیل ابتلا به بیماری خاص فراهم می شود. برای دستیابی به اثر مشابه درمانی یک نوع دارو، میزان یا دوز (کمتر و یا بیشتر از آن ) دارو نیز برای بیماران بر اساس ویژگی های ژنتیکی و ژنومی تعیین می گردد. حتی گاهی یک دارو در برخی اثر درمانی ندارد. این یک روش موثر برای کاهش هزینه آزمایش های بالینی و عوارض جانبی و مراقبت های بالینی در مدت زمان کمتر می باشد و درمان را بر اساس محتوای ژنتیکی یک بیمار و یا تجزیه و تحلیل های زیست مولکولی انتخاب می نمایند. هدف پزشکی فردی این است که شرایط را برای تجویز داروهای موثرتر، ایمن تر و بهتر فراهم آورده و عوارض جانبی آنها را به حداقل رسانند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Personalized Medicine: Toward Disease Prediction, Prevention and New Treatment Protocols

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Mahrokh 1
  • Khashayar Karimian 2
  • Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi 1
1 Institute of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Company, Iran Academy of Science, Chemistry Branch.
چکیده [English]

Personalized medicine is the design of a medical treatment protocol based on individual characteristics of each patient. However, it does not involve design and production of a new drugs or medical devices for each individual. Rather, it targets categories of subpopulations that demonstrate different responses to a particular disease or a drug. The differences among individuals are based on clinical data, omics sciences and bioinformatics, which make possible early detection of a disease by screening populations and identifying the high-risk individuals for a specific disease and designing an individual-based treatment protocol. It is well-established that some drugs have no therapeutic benefit in certain populations because of their genetic makeup. Using the genetic and genomic characteristics, personalized medicine provides the best drug selection and dosing protocol for individual patients to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This is an effective way to reduce the time and the cost of clinical trials, side effects and to provide clinical care and treatment based on a patient’s genetic content and molecular biology analysis. Therefore personalized medicine provides more effective, safer and higher quality of medical treatment with minimum side effects to the individual patient.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Personalized Medicine
  • Screening
  • Polymorphism
  • Side effects
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