عنوان مقاله [English]
Worldwide, many bird species are at the risk of extinction for various reasons, including poisoning with chemicals and heavy metals. Habitat degradation had negative impacts on birds and various birds search for food in the rubbish, due to lack of food in their natural habitats. Unsuitable disposal of waste is one of the causes of bird poisoning in garbage dumps. A large amount of waste is produced in cities every day. These human wastes are not only of nutritional value, but also the bacteria and viruses present in them and the residuals of chemicals, drugs and pesticides threaten the life of the birds. Managing the humans -bird interactions in such areas require the recognition of species and reasons for their attraction as well as the assessment of the risks to humans. These species may be rare and threatened by extinction, or contribute to the transmission of diseases by migrating to different regions. In order to control the bird population in landfills, various techniques have been proposed, including restricting the birds' physical access to waste by covering it with thick plastic layers or other materials, outside of working hours by the waste management authorities. Increasing the efficiency of waste processing operations and reducing waste piling time are also effective in reducing the presence of birds. Restoration of natural habitats such as wetlands, in the long term, can help to improve the natural habitat of birds and provide them with natural preys. Managing the vegetation and green spaces, reducing water resources in the environment, and the use of drip irrigation are low-cost methods that help reduce the presence of birds. Scaring off birds, using noise or human presence and installing sonic and ultrasonic bird repeller have been used in different countries and recommended depending on species and regional conditions.