آلودگی ناشی از آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها بر محیط‌زیست

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎت ﭘﺮوﺗﺌﯿﻦ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، اﯾﺮان.

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،مرکز تحقیقات پروتئین،آزمایشگاه نانو بیوتکنولوژی

چکیده

ﻣﺼﺮف ﺳﺎﻻنه آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ اﻧﺴﺎن و ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮدات (ﺣﺪود 106 ﺗﻦ در ﺳﺎل) در ﺣﺎل اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ اﺳﺖ؛ که اﯾﻦ مسئله ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اهمیت روزاﻓﺰون آﻟﻮدﮔﯽ ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏها ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏهای ﻣﺼﺮفﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ اﻧﺴﺎن و ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﺪاران بهﺻﻮرت ﮐﺎﻣﻞ در ﺑﺪن آنها ﺗﺠﺰیه ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮد و از ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﻓﺎﺿﻼب ﯾﺎ ﺿﺎﯾﻌﺎت ﺑﯿﻤﺎرﺳﺘﺎﻧﯽ به ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﭘﯿﺪا ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ.اﺧﯿﺮاً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روش های ﺣﺴﺎس ﮐﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻮﮔﺮاﻓﯽ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ و همچنین ﻃﯿﻒﺳﻨﺠﯽ ﺟﺮﻣﯽ، ﻣﯿﺰان ﺣﻀﻮر آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏها در ﺧﺎک و آب اﻧﺪازهﮔﯿﺮی ﺷﺪه که ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽدهد ﻏﻠﻈﺖ اﯾﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت در ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ از ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﺎﻧﻮﮔﺮم ﺗﺎ ﺻﺪها ﻧﺎﻧﻮﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﮔﺮم ﯾﺎ ﻟﯿﺘﺮ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ اﺳﺖ که در ﻓﺼﻞ زﻣﺴﺘﺎن ﺑﺎ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺼﺮف آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏ، ﺣﺠﻢ آﻟﻮدﮔﯽ ﻧﯿﺰ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ. ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت اﻧﺠﺎمﺷﺪه، ﻏﻠﻈﺖ آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏ در ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ آﺑﯽ ﮐﺸﻮرهای اروﭘﺎﯾﯽ 10 ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﮔﺮم در ﻟﯿﺘﺮ، ﻗﺎره آﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺗﺎ 15 ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﮔﺮم در ﻟﯿﺘﺮ، ﮐﺸﻮرهای آﻓﺮﯾﻘﺎﯾﯽ 50 ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﮔﺮم در ﻟﯿﺘﺮ و در ﮐﺸﻮرهای آﺳﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎﻟﻎﺑﺮ 450 ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﮔﺮم در ﻟﯿﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.ﺣﻀﻮر اﯾﻦ آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏها در آب وﺧﺎک ﻣﻤﮑﻦ اﺳﺖ بهﺻﻮرت ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮی های دﺧﯿﻞ در ﭼﺮﺧﻪهای اﮐﻮﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭼﺮخه ﺗﺜﺒﯿﺖ ﻧﯿﺘﺮوژن، ﻣﺘﺎﻧﻮژﻧﺰ، اﺣﯿﺎی ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت، ﭼﺮخه ﻧﯿﺘﺮات و ﻏﯿﺮه اﺛﺮ ﺑﮕﺬارد ﯾﺎ بهﺻﻮرت ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺪﯾﺪه اﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻓﻘﯽ ژﻧﺘﯿﮑﯽ، ﻏﻠﻈﺖهای ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏ در ﻣﺤﺪوده ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﯿﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ به اﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ، ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮات ژﻧﺘﯿﮑﯽ و ﻓﻨﻮﺗﯿﭙﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺮ روی ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖهای ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﯿﺰﯾﻮﻟﻮژﯾﮑﯽ در ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮی ها ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف آﻧﺘﯽﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏهای وارد ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ اﻧﺠﺎمﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ، ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽدهد که روش هاﯾﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ اﻧﻌﻘﺎد، اﻧﺠﻤﺎد، رﺳﻮبﮔﺬاری و ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮ ﺷﺪن ﻧﺎﮐﺎم ﺑﻮده اﻧﺪ. بهﺗﺎزﮔﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺒﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺬف آﻟﻮدﮔﯽ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روش های اﮐﺴﺎﯾﺶ ﭘﯿﺸﺮفته ﺻﻮرت ﮔﺮفته اﺳﺖ که ﺷﺎﯾﺪ ﮐﺎرآﻣﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ وﻟﯽ ﺑﺎاﯾﻦﺣﺎل ﻧﯿﺎز به ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﭘﯿﺸﺮفتهﺗﺮی ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental Pollution Caused by Antibiotics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samin Haghighi poodeh 1
  • Yahya Sefidbakht 2
  • Hassan Kouchakzadeh 2
1 Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, Tehran, Iran
2 Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, The Faculty of New Technologies Engineering (NTE) Shahid Beheshti University, G.C Tehran Iran
چکیده [English]

The annual global consumption of antibiotics by humans and other organisms is estimated about 106 tons per year, which is an issue of the increasing importance of environmental contamination by antibiotics. Consumed antibiotics by humans and other organisms do not completely degrade in their bodies, and are transmitted through the sewages or hospital wastes back to environment. Recently, the amount of antibiotics in the soil and water has been measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, which indicates the concentration of these compounds in the environment varies from a few nanograms to the hundreds of nanograms per kilogram, which the level of contamination increases due to the increasing usages of antibiotics in the winter. According to studies, the antibiotic concentration in American aquatic resources is up to 15 micrograms per liter, European and African countries are more than 10 micrograms per liter and 50 micrograms per liter, and in the Asian countries, this is over than 450 micrograms per liter. The presence of these antibiotics in the water and the soil may directly affect the bacteria involved in ecosystem cycles such as nitrogen fixation cycles, methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, nitric cycle, or indirectly by the horizontal gene transfer phenomenon, low antibiotic concentrations in the range of micrograms per liter lead to resistance, genetic and phenotypic changes, or various physiological activities in bacteria. Studies that have conducted to remove released antibiotics into the environment indicate that methods such as coagulation, freezing, sedimentation, and filtration have failed. New inquiries have carried out in order to the removal of contamination by using advanced oxidation methods, which seem to be effective methods; however, more advanced studies are needed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antibiotics
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Antibiotic resistant
  • environment
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