نگاهی به مواد بیگانه‌زیست

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسنده

ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎت ﭘﺮوﺗﺌﯿﻦ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، اﯾﺮان.

چکیده

ﻣﻮﺟﻮدات زﻧﺪه داﺋﻤﺎً در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت و ﻣﻮاد ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺘﻌﺪد از جمله ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴت ها هستند. ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖ ﯾﺎ زﻧﻮﺑﯿﻮﺗﯿﮏها ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎﺗﯽ هستندکه بهﺻﻮرت ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺷﺪه اﻧﺪ و در ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺖ وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﯾﻦ ﺑﺮای ﺑﯿﻮﺳﻔﺮ ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه هستند و بسته به ﺳﺮﻧﻮﺷﺘﺸﺎن در آب، هوا، ﺧﺎک و رﺳﻮﺑﺎت در ﻗﺴﻤﺖهای ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺖ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻣﯿﮑﺮوارﮔﺎﻧﯿﺴﻢها ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ. وﯾﮋﮔﯽهای ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎری ﻏﯿﺮﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎً ﻧﺎﺷﯽ از ﭘﯿﻮﻧﺪهای ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﻏﯿﺮﻓﯿﺰﯾﻮﻟﻮژﯾﮑﯽ اﺳﺖ که ﻣﺎﻧﻊ از ﺗﺠﺰیهﮐﺎﻣﻞ آنها ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﯿﮑﺮوارﮔﺎﻧﯿﺴﻢها ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺑﯿﮕﺎﻧﻪزﯾﺴﺖها ﺷﺎﻣﻞ آﻧﺘﯽاﮐﺴﯿﺪان ها، داروها، اﻓﺰودﻧﯽهای ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ، هیدروﮐﺮﺑﻦها و آﻓﺖﮐﺶها ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ. ﻣﺎ روزانه در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﯿﺶ از 250000 ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺐ ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ هستیم که ﺑﯽﺧﻄﺮ ﻓﺮض ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﯾﺎ به تنهایی ﺑﯽﺧﻄﺮ ﺑﻮدن آنها ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. ﻃﺒﻖ پژوهش های اﺧﯿﺮ، ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ ﻓﺮاواﻧﯽ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖها در ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻏﺪد درونرﯾﺰ، ﻣﯿﮑﺮوﺑﯿﻮم روده در ﺑﺪن اﻧﺴﺎن و در ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ وﺟﻮد دارد. ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت اﺧﯿﺮ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽدهد که ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﺑﯿﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖها و ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ آنها اﺛﺮات ﻏﯿﺮﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮه روی ﺳﻼﻣﺖ اﻧﺴﺎن و ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ ﭘﯿﺮاﻣﻮن ﻣﺎ دارد. اﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎله ﺑﺎ ارائه طبقهﺑﻨﺪی ﮐﺎﻣﻠﯽ از ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖها به ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ اﺛﺮات ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ آنها ﺑﺮ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ اﻧﺴﺎن و ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ ﻣﯽﭘﺮدازد. روش های ﻣﺘﻔﺎوﺗﯽ ﺑﺮای ﺣﺬف ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖها به ﮐﺎر ﮔﺮفته ﺷﺪﻧﺪ کهﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﻨﺠﺮ به ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮی ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ که ﺧﻮد ﺑﺮای ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ ﻣﻀﺮﻧﺪ. ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮجه به وﻓﻮر و ﻣﺎﻧﺪﮔﺎری اﯾﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت در ﻣﺤﯿﻂزﯾﺴﺖ، اﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎله راهکارهای ﻧﻮﯾﻨﯽ در جهت ﺣﺬف ﺑﯿﮕﺎنه زﯾﺴﺖها ارائه ﻣﯽدهد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Outlook to Xenobiotics

نویسنده [English]

  • Fataneh Fatemi
Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism and considered as substances foreign to an entire biological system, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. Xenobiotics include antioxidants, drugs, carcinogens, contaminants, food additives, hydrocarbons and pesticides and usually are resistant to degradation and accumulate in the environment due to their recalcitrant properties. The xenobiotic accumulation occurs particularly in the subsurface environment and water sources, as well as in biological systems, having the potential to impact human health and environment. Moreover, these compounds can be accumulated in food chain and cause harm to the different ecosystems. We are chronically exposed to over than 250,000 different xenobiotic that are considered safe or known to be safe alone. But recent research studies demonstrate that many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health and environment, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. This paper focus on the synergistic toxic effect of xenobiotics mixtures on environment and also on human health, notably on the endocrine system and intestinal microbiome. For the degradation of xenobiotic compounds various physico-chemical and biological methods have been used but all these methods produce toxic by-products that are hazardous to the environment. The present paper also provides a comprehensive outlook on the utilization of new technologies for removal of xenobiotic environmental pollutants

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • xenobiotics
  • Chemical Association of Xenobiotics
  • human health
  • environment
  • Xenobiotics Removal
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