شرایط نهادی و نقش بالقوه فرهنگستان علوم در توسعه پایدار کشور

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسنده

شرکت صنایع شیمیایی دارویی ارسطو.،اعضاء فرهنگستان علوم جمهوری اسلامی ایران، شاخه شیمی،

چکیده

رفاه اقتصادی، پیشرفت اجتماعی و توسعه پایدار با جایگاه علمی و فناوری هر کشور رابطه مستقیم دارد. توانمندی علمی شرط لازم ولی غیرکافی برای دگردیسی علم به فناوری و استفاده از نوآوری به­عنوان نیروی محرکه اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان و توسعه پایدار می­باشد. سرمایه‌گذاری‌های انجام شده، ارتقاء جایگاه علمی ایران را به درجه هیجدهم تولید علم جهان رسانده است. لاکن، دولت‌ها تاکنون از توان عظیم علمی و فناوری فرهنگستان علوم جمهوری اسلامی ایران به­عنوان مرجعیت علمی و فناوری کشور استفاده ننموده و رابطه آنها با فرهنگستان از الگوی کشورهای درحال‌توسعه پیروی نموده است. مخرج مشترک ناکامی کشور در تبدیل توانمندی بالای علمی به فناوری و نوآوری و استفاده از آن در توسعه پایدار، کمبود شرایط نهادی در ایران و در رأس آن قانون غیرشفاف است. استقلال قوه قضائیه در اجرای قوانین موجود با عدالت کامل، تصویب لوایح کارآمد و به‌روز برای تقویت شرایط نهادی و قانون محوری به‌عوض فرد محوری، در درجه اول، و استفاده دولت از توان قابل‌ملاحظه علمی و فناوری فرهنگستان علوم به‌عنوان مرجعیت علمی و فناوری کشور، در درجه دوم، پیش‌شرط‌های دست‌یابی به اقتصاد دانش‌محور و رفاه اقتصادی، پیشرفت اجتماعی و توسعه پایدار می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Institutional conditions and the potential role of the Iranian academy of sciences in sustainable development of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Khashayar Karimian
Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Company.Member of Iran Academy of Science, Chemistry Branch.
چکیده [English]

A country’s economic prosperity, social development and sustainable development are directly related to its science and technology ranking. Competency in science is a necessary but insufficient condition for the transformation of science to technology and innovation, which serves as the driving force for science-based economy and sustainable development. Investments in science have improved Iran’s ranking to 17 on the global scale. However, various governments have not utilized the enormous potential of the Iranian Academy of Sciences as the country’s science and technology authority, and the relation between the government and the Academy follows the pattern of developing countries. The common cause of Iran’s deficiency in the transformation of its considerable scientific capabilities to technological ability and innovation for sustainable development is primarily due to the country’s deficiency of institutional conditions and at its apex the rule of law. Judicial independence for equal and just administration of the existing laws, passage of new bills for strengthening institutional conditions and a government of law and not of men, in the first place, and government’s utilization of the Academy’s considerable potential as the country’s science and technology authority, in the second place, are prerequisites to achieving a science-based economy, and thereby economic prosperity and social as well as sustainable development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Institutional conditions
  • technology
  • Innovation
  • Iranian academy of sciences
  • Iran’s ranking in science
[1]. مرندی، علیرضا، (1396)، مرجعیت علم و فناوری، فرهنگستان علوم پزشکی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، سند شماره 3171/ ف/ ع/و.
[2]. http://www.euro-acad.eu/abouttheacademy/
Duties-andresponsibilities
[3]. https://royalsociety.org/about-us/history/
[4]. http://www.nasonline.org/about-nas/history/
archives/founding-and-early-work.html
[5]. True, F. W. (1913), A History of the First Half-Century of the National Academy of Sciences, The Lord Baltimore Press, Baltimore, MD, USA. 205, 238, PP.16
[6]. Osgood, W. H., Preble, E. A., and Parker, G. H. (1915). The Fur Seals and Other Life of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, in 1914, Government Printing Office, Washington DC. PP. 19-28.
[7]. Cochrane, R.C. (1978). National Academy of Sciences, the First Hundred Years, 1863-1963. NAS Printing and Publishing Office, Washington DC, PP. 180-206.
[8]. Ibid 7, PP. 200-240; "Minutes of the Council," June 1916, PP. 228–232; NAS, Annual Report for 1918, PP. 84–86; Grosvenor C.B. (1923). Industrial America in the World War: The Strategy Behind the Lines, 1917–1918, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., PP. 389–390.
[9]. Ibid 7, PP.200-241; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/books/NBK217871/
[10]. Wessner, C.W. and Wolff, A.W. Editors (2012). Committee on Comparative National Innovation Policies: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Rising to the Challenge, U.S. Innovation Policy for the Global Economy, National Academies Press, Washington DC, PP. 189-198; Ibid 7, PP. 242-565.
[11] http://www.nationalacademies.org/about/what
wedo/index.html
[12] https://www.nasa.gov/exploration/about/acade
my.html
[13]. Gibson, E., Pappas, M.P. (2003). Starting Smart, The National Academies Press, Washington DC, USA, PP. 41-46; Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (2005). Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings: Workshop Proceedings - Federal Facilities Council Technical Report Number 148, The National Academies Press, Washington DC, USA, PP. 10-56.
[14]. Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (2000). Science and Technology in the National Interest, the Presidential Appointment Process, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington DC, PP. 1-22.
[15]. Carnegie Commission (1993). Science, Technology and government for a Changing World, PP. 1-93; Golden, W.T. Editor (1993). Science and Technology Advice to the President, Congress, and Judiciary, 2nd Ed. AAAS Press, Washington, DC, PP. 21-111.
[16]. http://sites.national academies.org/PGA/step/ PGA_083849 (Academies Innovation Policy Forum)
[17]. http://www.pnas.org/site/aboutpnas/index.x
html (Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences USA).
[18]. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/21712/the-power-of-change-innovation-for-development-and-deployment-of
[19]. https://nam.edu/programs/innovation-to-incubation/
[20]. http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/step/
middleskilljobs/index.htm
[21]. خبرنامه‌های فرهنگستان علوم جمهوری اسلامی 1396-1393
[22]. بهزاد، م.، (1396)، گزارشی از فرهنگستان علوم قبل و بعد از انقلاب اسلامی ایران، نامه فرهنگستان علوم،1، ص.161
[23]. کریمیان، خ.، (1390)، زیر ساخت های دگر دیسی دانش به فناوری، نشاء علم، 1، ص.6
[24]. www.wipo.int/treaties/en/text.jsp?file_id=
288514; https://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_ media/Legal/Paris_Convention.pdf; http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/about-ip
/en/iprm/pdf/ch5.pd;
[25]. Ganguli, P. (2003). Indian Path Towards TRIPS Compliance, World Patent Information, 25, PP. 143-149.
[26]. Maynard, J.T., Peters, H.M. (`1991), Understanding Chemical Patents, A Guide for the Inventor, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1991.
[27]. Easterlin, R.A. (1999), Growth Triumphant, The Twenty First Century in Historical Perspective, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, PP. 21.
[28]. Dutta. S., Lanvin, B., Wunsch-Vincent, S. Editors )2016), The Global Innovation Index, World Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, PP. 27-166 ; Marquis, C., Raynard, M., (2015). “Institutional Strategies in Emerging Markets”, Academy of Management Annals, 9, 291-335; Thompson, D.F. (2013). Two Concepts of Corruption, Harvard University, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Working Paper 16, 1-24; Stein, H. (2008). Beyond the World Bank Agenda, An Institutional Approach to Development, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago USA, PP. 111-206.
[29]. Seyyed-Ghorab, McGlinn, S. (2008), The Essence of Modernity, Mirza Usef Khan Mostashar ad-Dowla Tabrizi, Treatise on Codified Law, (Yek Kalameh), Rosenberg Publishersand Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN, USA, PP. 109-118; .
[30]. Katouzian, H. (2015), The Persians, Yale University Press, New Heaven, CN, USA, PP. 152;
[31]. Ibid 30, p.17.
[32]. Lieberthal, K.G., Cheng Li, C., Yu Keping, Y. )2014), China’s Political Development, Brooking Institute Press, PP. 26-112, 279-286, 302-367.
[33]. Gurvich, E. (2016) Institutional Constraints and Economic Development, Russian J. Eco., 2, 349-374; Polischuk, L. (2013). Institutional Performance, The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy, PP. 189-220; Edquist, C. (2011). Design of Innovation Policy Through Diagnostic Analysis: Identification of Systemic Problems (or Failures) Ind. Corp Change, 20, 1725-1753.
[34]. http://www.scimagojr.com/ countryrank.php; http://www.idgconnect.com/abstract/9319/thescience-iran;
[35]. سخنرانی رهبری در دیدار با دانشگاهیان مورخ 1396/3/31 (http://www.leader.ir/fa/media/18585)
[36]. Weder, B. (2001), Institutional Reforms in Transition Economies, How Far Have we Come, International Monetary Funds Working Paper WP/01/114, PP. 1-26.
[37]. Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J.A. (2013), Why Nations Fail, Random House, London, England, PP. 108-110, 209-212.
[38]. Fergguson, N. (2012), Civilization, Penguin Books, London, England, PP. 11-14, 77.
[39]. Weiner, M. and Huntington, S. (1987). Editors, Understanding Political Development, Scott, Foresman and Company, Glenview, IL, PP.183-185.
[40]. Shen, X., Tsai, K. (2016). Institutional Adaptability in China: Local Developmental Models Under Changing Economic Conditions, World Development, 87, 107-127.
[41]. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39368062.pdf
[42] Lei, J. (1992). "The Political Economy of South Korean Development, International Sociology", 7, 28; Sirowy, L., Inkeles, A. (2007). "The Effect of Democracy on Economic Growth and Inequality", A Review, Comp. Soc., 6, 481-507.
[43]. کریمیان، خ.، (1392)، نقش بالقوه شیمی در ساختار اقتصادی و اجتماعی ایران، نشاء علم 1392، 4، 19