متابولیسم گیاهخواران

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران،دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی پردیس کشاورزی،علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی

2 مرکز تحقیقات بیوشیمی و بیوفیزیک، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

گیاهخوار، کسی است که از مصرف انواع گوشت اجتناب می‌کند و وگن­ها، علاوه بر گوشت، لبنیات و تخم‌مرغ را نیز مصرف نمی‌کنند. هدف از این مقاله ارزیابی اثرات رژیم‌ها، به‌ویژه رژیم غذایی گیاهخواری بر سلامتی و بیماری است. رژیم‌های گیاهخواری باعث کاهش ابتلا به بیماری‌های قلبی عروقی، عوامل خطرزای قلبی و عروقی، برخی از سرطان‌ها و مرگ‌ومیر می‌شود با اینکه رژیم گیاهخواری در مقایسه با اکثر رژیم‌ها دارای اثرات مفیدی بر سلامتی بدن هستند ولی درصورتی‌که به روش صحیح اجرا نشود باعث کمبود مواد مغذی شامل پروتئین، آهن، روی، کلسیم، ویتامین ۱۲B و A، اسید چرب امگا ۳ و ید می‌شود. در این مقاله اثر الگوهای رژیم گیاهخواری بر عملکرد عصبی و شناختی، چاقی، دیابت و سایر بیماری‌ها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Vegetarian metabolism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Salami 1
  • Mina Hajizadeh 2
1 University of Tehran, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Campus of Agriculture, Food Science and Engineering
2 Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

A vegetarian is a person who avoids meat consumption and a vegan is one who does not use, dairy, and eggs as well. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets, especially vegetarian diet on health and disease. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, cancers and disease. People with a vegetarian diet appear to be less likely to develop obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. Although vegetarian diets are health promoting compare to most diets but vegetarian diet can cause nutrient deficiencies including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins 12B and A, omega-3 fatty acids, and iodine if it is not appropriately followed. The effects of vegetarian diet on neurological and cognitive function, obesity, diabetes and other diseases have been considered in this article.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vegetarian
  • Metabolism
  • type 2 diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Nutrition
[1]. Varlamov, O. (2017). Western-style diet, sex steroids and metabolism, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease, Vol.1863, No.5. PP. 1147-1155.
[2]. Leitzmann, C. (2005). Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages? , Diet diversification and health promotion, Karger Publishers,Vol.57. PP. 147-156.
[3]. Sinclair, HM. (1979). The human nutritional advantages of plant foods over animal foods, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum), Vol29, No.1. PP .7-18.
[4]. Caspermeyer, J. (2016). Are Are We What We Eat? Evidence of a Vegetarian Diet Permanently Shaping the Human Genome to Change Individual Risk of Cancer and Heart Disease, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.33, No.7. PP. 1887–1888.
[5]. Wyness, L., Weichselbaum, E., O'connor, A., Williams, E. B., Benelam, B., Riley, H., & Stanner, S. (2011). Red meat in the diet: an update, Nutrition Bulletin, Vol.36, No.1, PP. 34-77.
[6]. Chan, D. S., Lau, R., Aune, D., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D. C., Kampman, E., & Norat, T. (2011). Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies, PloS one, Vol.6, No.6. PP. e20456.
[7]. Song, Y., Manson, J. E., Buring, J. E., & Liu, S. (2004). Prospective Study of Red Meat Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women, Diabetes Care, Vol.27, No.9. PP. 2108-2115.
[8]. Pan, A., Sun, Q., Bernstein, A. M., Schulze, M. B., Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2011). Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis, The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol.94, No.4. PP. 1088–1096.
[9]. Rizza, W., Veronese, N., Fontana, L. (2014). What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity, Ageing Research Reviews, Vol.13. PP. 38-45.
[10]. McCarty, M. F. (2003). A low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, as well as other strategies that down-regulate IGF-I activity, may slow the human aging process, Medical Hypotheses, Vol.60, No.6. PP.784-792.
[11]. Ravussin, E., Lillioja, S., Knowler, W. C., Christin, L., Freymond, D., Abbott, W. G., Bogardus, C. (1988). Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.318, No.8. PP. 467-472.
[12]. Benedict, F. G., & Roth, P. (1915). The metabolism of vegetarians as compared with the metabolism of non-vegetarians of like weight and height, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol.20, No.3. PP. 231-241
[13]. Montalcini, T., De Bonis, D., Ferro, Y., Carè, I., Mazza, E., Accattato, F., Greco, M., Foti, D., Romeo, S., Gulletta, E. and Pujia, A. (2015). High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians, Nutrients, Vol.7, No.7. PP. 5933-5947
[14]. Prewitt, T.E., Schmeisser, D., Bowen, P.E., Aye, P., Dolecek, T.A., Langenberg, P., Cole, T. and Brace, L. (1991). Changes in body weight, body composition, and energy intake in women fed high-and low-fat diets, The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol.54, No.2. PP. 304-310
[15]. Inomaki, R., Murakami, K., Livingstone, M. B. E., Okubo, H., Kobayashi, S., Suga, H., & Sasaki, S. (2017). A Japanese diet with low glycaemic index and glycaemic load is associated with both favourable and unfavourable aspects of dietary intake patterns in three generations of women, Public Health Nutrition, Vol.20, No.4. PP. 649-659.
[16]. Daniel, C. R., Cross, A. J., Koebnick, C., & Sinha, R. (2011). Trends in meat consumption in the USA, Public Health Nutrition, Vol.14, No.4. PP. 575-583.
[17]. Toth, M. J., & Poehlman, E. T. (1994). Sympathetic nervous system activity and resting metabolic rate in vegetarians, Metabolism, Vol.43, No.5. PP. 621–625.
[18]. Cooling, J., & Blundell, J. (1998). Differences in energy expenditure and substrate oxidation between habitual high fat and low fat consumers (phenotypes), International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, Vol.22, No.7. PP. 612–618