تنوع زیستی، امنیت غذایی و سلامت

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگاه استاندارد،پژوهشکده صنایع غذایی و فرآورده‌های کشاورزی،

2 پژوهشکده صنایع غذایی و فرآوردههای کشاورزی، پژوهشگاه استاندارد، کرج ، ایران

چکیده

محافظت از تنوع زیستی در کشاورزی پایدار و تولید مواد غذایی و سلامت بشر، امری ضروری است. انسان‌ها برای زندگی نیازمند تأمین منابع غذایی، سرپناه و سایر ملزومات هستند، در راستای این الزام گاهی گونه‌های گیاهی و محیط زیست را تغیر می­دهند و یا با استفاده از آفت‌کش‌ها تنوع زیستی را کاهش می­دهند. تأمین غذا و سلامتی انسان نیز به بسیاری از عوامل از جمله سلامت محیط زیست و خدمات زیست بوم بستگی دارد. هر­گونه تغییر در زیست بوم، دسترسی به غذا، آب، هوا و داروهای طبیعی و سنتی را تهدید کرده، پاسخ‌های طبیعی سیستم ایمنی بدن را نسبت به مواد حساسیت­زا و سایر عوامل بیماری‌زا تحت تأثیر قرار داده و با افزایش ریسک بیماری­های عفونی وسایر بیماری­ها مانند دیابت و سرطان و حتی سلامت روان همراه است. در این بررسی به اهمیت حفظ تنوع زیستی در امنیت غذایی و همچنین سلامت انسان پرداخته می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biodiversity, Food Security and Health

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansooreh Mazaheri 1
  • Masoomeh Mahmoodi Meymand 2
1 Standard Research Institute, Food and Agricultural Products
2 1Research Department of Food Technology and Agricultural Products, Standard Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

It is essential to protect biodiversity in sustainable agriculture, food production and human health. Humans need food, shelter and other necessities for life. For this reason, they sometimes change plant species and their environment or reduce biodiversity by using pesticides. Food supply and human health also depend on many factors, including environmental health and ecosystem services. Any change in the ecosystem threats access to food, water, air and natural or traditional drugs, has effects on natural response of immune system of body to allergen and other pestiferous factors and increase the risk of infection and other diseases such as diabetes and cancer and also mental health. This study addresses the importance of biodiversity conservation in food security as well as human health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biodiversity
  • Food Security
  • health
  • ecosystem
  • Agriculture
[1]. Andrianos, L. (2014). Sustainable Alternatives for Poverty, Reduction and Eco-Justice, Volume 1, England, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
[2]. Sanborn, M., Kerr, K.J., Sanin, L.H., Cole, D.C., Bassil, K.L., Vakil, C. (2007). Non-cancer health effects of pesticides: systematic review and implications for family doctors, Can Fam Physician, Vol. 53, NO.10. PP.1712-20.
[3]. Bassil, K.L., Vakil, C., Sanborn, M. ,Cole, D.C., Kaur, J.S., Kerr, K.J. (2007). Cancer health effects of pesticides: systematic review, Can Fam Physician, Vol. 53, NO. 10. PP.1704-11.
[4]. World Health Organization (2003). WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for Medicinal Plants, Geneva.
[5]. Diaz, S., Tilman, D., Fargione, J. (2005). Biodiversity Regulation of Ecosystem Services, Ecosystems and human well-being: Current state and trends: Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group, PP. 297-329.
[6]. Boatman, N., Parry, H., Bishop, J., Cuthbertson, A. (2007). Impacts of agricultural change on farmland biodiversity in the UK, Biodiversity under threat, RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK, PP.1-32.
[7]. Vickery, J.A., Tallowin, J.R., Feber, R.E., Asteraki, E.J., Atkinson, P.W., Fuller, R.J., Brown, V.K. (2001). The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 38, NO.3. PP. 647-664.
[8]. Brühl, C., Schmidt, T., Pieper, S., Alscher, A. (2013). Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline?, Sci Rep., Vol.3, NO.1135. PP. 1-4.
[9]. Pérez, G. L., Torremorell, A., Mugni, H., Rodríguez, P., Solange Vera, M., Nascimento, M., Allende, L., Bustingorry, J., Escaray, R. Ferraro, M., Izaguirre, I., Pizarro, H., Bonetto, C., Morris, D., Zagarese, H. (2007). Effects of the herbicide Roundup on freshwater microbial communities: a mesocosm study, Ecological Applications, Vol.17, NO.8. PP. 2310-2322.
[10]. Pimm, S., Russell, G., Gittleman, J., Brooks, T. (1995). The future of biodiversity, Science, Vol. 269, NO.5222. PP. 347-350.
[11]. Kilpatrick, A.M., Salkeld, D.J., Titcomb, G., Hahn, M.B. (2017). Conservation of biodiversity as a strategy for improving human health and well-being, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci., Vol. 372, NO. 1722. PP. 1-9.
[12]. Prüss-Üstün, A., Corvalán, C. (2006). Preventing disease through healthy environments – Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
[13]. Corvalan, C., Hales, S., McMichael, A. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis, A report of the millennium ecosystem assessment, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
[14]. Sandifer, P., Frederick, H., Teri, K., Rowles, T., Scott,G. (2004). The Oceans and Human Health, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol.112, NO.8.
[15]. Bowler, D., AliTeri,B., Knight, T., Pullin, A. (2010). Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 97, NO.3. PP.147–155.
[16]. Hansk,i I., von Hertzen, L., Fyhrquist, N., Koskinen, K., Torppa, K., Laatikainen, T., Karisola, P., Auvinen, P., Paulin, L., Mäkelä, M.J., Vartiainen, E., Kosunen, T.U., Alenius, H., Haahtela, T. (2012). Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci., USA, Vol.109, NO.21. PP.8334–8339.
[17]. بهنام راد، محمد، تقوی، فرشته، موسوی موحدی، فائزه و موسوی موحدی، علی اکبر. (1395). تغییرات اقلیم،گرمایش جهانی و دیابت، نشریه نشا علم، مجلد6، شماره1 ، صفحات 61-67
[18]. Bernstein, A.S. (2014). Biological diversity and public health, Annul. Rev. Public Health, Vol. 35, PP.153–167.
[19]. Hough, R.L. (2014). Biodiversity and human health: evidence for causality? Biodivers. Conserv, Vol. 23, NO.2. PP.267–288.
[20]. Haahtela, T., Holgate, S., Pawankar, R., Akdis, C., Benjaponpitak, S., Caraballo, L., Demain, J., Portnoy, J., Hertzen, L. (2013). The biodiversity hypothesis and allergic disease: world allergy organization position statement, World Allergy Organ J., Vol. 6, NO.1. PP.1–18.
[21]. Lynch, S., Wood, R, Boushey, H., Bacharier, L., Bloomberg, G., Kattan, M., O’Connor,G., Sandel, M., Calatroni, A., Matsui, E., Johnson, C., Lynn, H., Visness, C., Katy F., Jaffee, C., Gergen, P., Gold, D., Wright, R., Fujimura, K., Rauch, M., Busse, W., Gern, J. (2014). Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children, Allergy Clin. Immunol., Vol. 134, NO.3. PP.593–601.
[22]. Rook, G.A. (2013). Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA Vol. 110, NO. 46. PP.18360–18367.
[23]. Daszak, P., Cunningham, A., Hyatt, A.D. (2000). Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife – Threats to biodiversity and human health, Science, Vol. 287, No. 5452. PP.443-449.
[24]. Schmidt, K.A., Ostfeld, R.S. (2001). Biodiversity and the dilution effect in disease ecology. Ecology, Vol. 82, No. 3. PP. 609-619.
[25]. Mitchell, C.E., Tilman, D., Groth, J.V. (2002). Effects of grassland plant species diversity, abundance, and composition on foliar fungal disease. Ecology, Vol. 83, No. 6. PP.1713-1726.
[26]. Keesing, F., Belden, L., Daszak, P., Dobson, A., Harvell, C., Holt, R., Hudson, P., Jolles, A., Jones, K., Mitchell, C., Myers, S., Bogich, T., Ostfeld, R. (2010). Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases, Nature, Vol. 468, No. 324. PP. 647–652.
[27]. Stephen, C. (2009). Sustaining life: How human health depends on biodiversity. Environ Health Perspect, Book Review, New York: Oxford University Press, Vol. 117, No. 6. PP. 542.
[28]. Handbook of Climate Change and Biodiversity, (2019). Springer International Publishing, Springer Nature, Switzerland AG.
[29]. Dean, J., van Dooren, K., Weinstein, P. (2011). Does biodiversity improve mental health in urban settings? Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 76, No. 6. PP. 877-880.
[30]. Frumkin, H. (2002). Urban Sprawl and Public Health, Public Health Reports, Vol. 117, No. 3. PP. 201-217.
[31]. Maas, M. R. A., Verheij, R., Vries, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Schellevis, F., Groenewegen, P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment, J Epidemiol Community Health, Vol. 63, No.12. 967-973.
[32]. Wells, N.M., Evans, G.W. (2003). Nearby Nature: A buffer of life stress among rural children. Environ Behav, Vol. 35, No. 3. PP. 311-330.
[33]. Hartig, T., Evans, G., DJamner, L., Davis, D., Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field setting, J Environ Psychol, Vol. 32. No. 2. PP.109-123.
[34]. Schiffman, S. (1992). Aging and the sense of smell: Potential benefits of fragrance enhancement, The psychology and biology of perfume, Elsevier, England, PP. 51-66.
[35]. Kevin, J., Gaston, J. (2004). Biodiversity: An Introduction, 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell publishing, Oxford, UK. Vol. 38, No. 40.
[36]. Reid, D.D., Gruskin, S., Allotey, P. (2015). Is the right to health compatible with sustainability? J Glob Health, Vol. 5, No. 1.
[37]. FAO. (2019). The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture, Edited by Bélanger, J., Pilling, D., FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments, Rome, PP.572.