زالوی طبی: داروخانه زنده

نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم جانوری،دانشکده زیست شناسی، پردیس علوم، دانشگاه تهران

2 مرکز تحقیقات بیوشیمی و بیوفیزیک، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در مقاله پیش رو، ضمن اشاره به انواع زالوی طبی و اهمیت آنها، به تاریخچه زالودرمانی که با فراز و نشیب ها درجهان مواجه بوده، پرداخته می شود. استفاده از زالوی طبی در قرن نوزدهم به اوج خود رسید که سبب انقراض جمعیت زالوی طبی در بسیاری از کشورهای غربی، رکود زالودرمانی مشاهده شد. با جداسازی هیرودین از غدد بزاقی، زالوی طبی و خواص بزاق آن در درمان بیماری های قلبی-عروقی، پیوند اعضا و جراحی پلاستیک مجددا بصورت علمی مورد استقبال قرار گرفت. در کشور ما نیز زالوی طبی توسط پزشکان به نامی نظیر ابن سینا، رازی، جرجانی، عقیلی علوی شیرازی در درمان بیماری ها مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. زالوی طبی در سازمان غذا و داروی وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی ایران بعنوان فرآورده سنتی مصوب شده و شیوه عمل استفاده از آن در سال 1398 در کمیته ملی زالوی طبی مستقر در این سازمان تصویب شده است. از فعالیت های انجام شده در دانشگاه تهران در رابطه با زالوی طبی می توان برگزاری دو همایش بین المللی و اولین استارت آپ ویکند زالوی طبی و صنایع وابسته، برگزاری 15 کارگاه آموزشی ملی و بین المللی تکثیر و پرورش زالوی طبی، اولین کارگاه آموزش مسئولین فنی، ایجاد منطقه حفاظت شده زالوی طبی، پیگیری ایجاد کمیته ملی و تاسیس اولین مرکز مکانیزه تکثیر و پرورش زالوی طبی را برشمرد. درحال حاضر با مشکلات متعددی از جمله ورود زالوی قاچاق از سایر کشورها، برداشت بی رویه از طبیعت که موحب انقراض زالوی طبی خواهد شد و همچنین ورود زالوهای آلوده به مراکز درمانی می شود، تغذیه زالوهای پرورشی با خون آلوده، عدم پوشش بیمه زالودرمانی، عدم پوشش بیمه مراکز تکثیر و پرورش زالوی طبی روبه رو هستیم که می باید معضلات فوق با توجه ویژه و مدیریت پیشرفته گشایش یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Medicinal Leeches: Alive Pharmacy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Malek 1
  • Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi 2
1 Department of Animal Biology, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran
2 Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the present article, while referring to different types of medicinal leeches and their importance, the history of world leech therapy with its inconsistency are discussed. The application of medicinal leeches reached its peak in the nineteenth century, and consequently led to the extinction of their populations in many Western countries, and then there was a drop of leech therapy. By isolating Hirudin from salivary glands, leech saliva complex compounds were again significantly welcomed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, organ transplantation and plastic surgery. In Iran, medicinal leeches have been used for treatment of different diseases by well-known Ancient Scientists such as Avicina, Razi, Jorjani and Aghili Alavi Shirazi.
Medicinal leeches were approved as a traditional product by the Food and Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran, and the instructions for its use were approved in 2019 in the National Committee of Medicinal Leeches. Some activities carried out at the University of Tehran about the medicinal leeches include: organizing two International Conference and startup weekend on Medicinal Leeches, offering 15 national and international training workshops on reproduction and breeding of medicinal leeches, the first training workshop for technical officers, establishing a protected area for medicinal leeches, pursuing the establishment of a National Committee and constituted the first automated center for reproduction and breeding of medicinal leeches. Currently, leech industry is facing many issues, including the illegal import of leeches from abroad, lack of control on leech overfishing from the natural habitats, which led to the extinction of medicinal leeches, as well as the supplying the medical and health centers with infected leeches, feeding reared leeches with contaminated blood, no- insurance coverages of leech treatment, and medicinal leech farms. The above problems should be solved with special attention and advanced management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Medicinal Leech
  • Hirudo orientalis
  • Leech Therapy
  • Enzymes
  • Traditional products
[1]. Mann, K. H. (1962) Leeches (Hirudinea): their structure, physiology, ecology and embryology, Pergamon Press, PP. 239.
[2]. Michalsen, A., Roth, M., Dobos, G., Aurich, M. (2007) Medicinal leech therapy, Georg Thieme Verlag, New York, PP. 178.
[3]. Whitaker, I. S. (2009) Molecular genetic microbiological and clinical analysis of Hirudo species (leeches): implications for use in surgical practice, PhD thesis, Utrecht University, PP. 239.
[4]. Pechenik, J. A. (2014) Biology of the Invertebrates (7th ed.), McGraw-Hill Education; 2014, New York, PP. 624.
[5]. Trontelj, P., Sotler, M., Verovnik, R. (2004) Genetic differentiation between two species of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis and the neglected H. verbana, based on random-amplified polymorphic DNA. Parasitology Research, Vol. 94, No. 2, PP.118-124.
[6]. Utevsky, S., Zagmajster, M., Atemasov, A., Zinenko, O., Utevska, O., Utevsky, A., Trontelj, P. (2010) Distribution and status of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo) in the Western Palaearctic: anthropogenic, ecological, or historical effects? Aquatic Conservation, Vol. 20, No. 2, PP. 198-210.
[7]. Siddall, M.E., Trontelj, P., Utevsky S.Y., Nkamany, M., Macdonald, K.S. (2007) Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 274, PP. 1481-1487.
[8]. Sket, B., Trontelj, P. (2008) Global diversity of leeches (Hirudinea) in freshwater, Hydrobiologia, Vol. 595, No. 1, PP. 129-137.
[9]. French, K. A., Kirstan, Jr. W. B. (1992) Target Influences on the Development of Leech Neurons, Trends in Neurosciences, Vol. 15, No. 5, PP. 169-74.
[10]. Malek, M., Khodadoost, M. (2016) A chronological journey to Iranian medicinal leech: An amazing creature, Science Cultivation, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 73-80 [In Persian].
 
[11]. Wells, M. D., Manktelow, R. T., Boyd, J. B., Bowen, V. (1993) The medical leech: an old treatment revisited, Microsurgery, Vol. 14, PP. 183-186.
[12]. Farsani, M. (2010) Cupping and phelobotomy in Persian literature, Medical History, Vol. 4, No. 13, PP. 55-84 [In Persian].
[13]. Utevsky, S., Trontelj, P. A. (2005) new species of the medicinal leech (Oligochaeta, Hirudinida, Hirudo) from Transcaucasia and an identification key for the genus Hirudo, Parasitology Research, Vol. 98, No. 1, PP. 61.
[14]. Elliott, J. M., Kutschera, U. (2011) Medicinal leeches: historical use, ecology, genetics and conservation, Freshwater Reviews, Vol. 4, PP. 21–41.
[15]. Fields, W. S. (1991) The history of leeching and Hirudin. Haemostasis, Vol. 21(Suppl 1), PP. 3-10.
[16]. Saglam, N., Saunders, R., Lang, S. A., Shain, D. H. (2016) A new species of Hirudo (Annelida: Hirudinidae): historical biogeography of Eurasian medicinal leeches, BMC Zoology, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 5.
[17]. Aghili-Alavi-Shirazi, M. H. (2013) Makhzan al-Adwiya. Ed. by Shams Ardekani MR; Rahimi R; Farjadmand F., Choogan, Tehran. [In Persian].
[18]. Jorjani, E. (2013) Zakhireh Kharazmshahi, Institute of Natural Medicine Revival, Qom [In Persian].
[19]. Aghili Alavi Shirazi M. Kholasat Al hekmat, Edited by Nazem, Esmaeilian Publication, Qom [In Persian].
[20]. Avicenna, H. (2005) Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), Alamy Le al-Matbooat Institute, Lebanon [In Arabic].
[21]. Arzani, M. (2012) Mofarrah al-Gholoob, Lomei, Tehran [In Persian].
[22]. Al-Razi M. (1955) Al-Hawi fi al-tibb. Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, Hyderabad [In Arabic].
[23]. Darabi-Darestani, K., Malek, M. (2011) Predation of two species of leech under laboratory condition. Progress in Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 11-15.
[24]. Paruzel, M. (2010) Practical outline of Hirudotherapy. Naturoterapia Par-med. PP. 147 [In Polish].
[25]. Mohammadi-Kenari, H., Kordafshari, Gh. (2015) Amale Yadavi (Phelobotomy, Cupping and leech therapy). Yaghout [In Persian].
[26]. Barzegar, A., Azizi, A., Faridi, P., Mohagheghzadeh, A. (2015) Leech therapy in Iranian traditional medicine. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, Vol. 22, PP. 50-53.
[27]. Ghods, R., Abdi, M., Pourrahimi, M., Dabaghian, F. (2029) Leech therapy indications: a scoping review, Persian Medicine, Vol. 4, PP. 118-130.
[28]. Koppen, D., Aurich, M., Pasalar, M., Rampp, T. (2017) Medicinal leech therapy in venous congestion and various ulcer forms: Perspectives of Western, Persian and Indian medicine, Journal of Traditional and complementary medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, PP. 104-109.
[29]. Dwiwedi, A. P. (2012) Case study of leech application in diabetic foot ulcer, International International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy, Vol. 3, No. 5, PP. 748-751.
[30]. Hajtalebi, H., Iurigh, H. K., Hajtalebi, H. R. (2017) Treatment of diabetic foot ulcer in a 74-year-old female patient based on Iranian traditional medicine in Bojnurd, Asian Journal of Clinical Case Reports for Traditional and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 1, PP. 1-10.
[31]. Hamidzadeh, N., Azizi, A., Zarshenas, M. M., Ranjbar, S. (2017) Leech therapy in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a case report, Journal of Integrative Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 5, PP.407-410.
[32]. Pourrahimi, M., Abdi, M., Ghods, R. (2010) Complications of leech therapy, Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, Vol. 10, No. 3, PP. 222-234.
[33]. Kovalenko, M., Utevsky, S. (2015) Comparative structural analysis of jaws of selected blood-feeding and predacious arhynchobdellid leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida), Zoomorphology, Vol. 134, No. 1, PP. 33-43.
[34]. Soltani, M., Alijaniha, F. (2011) Medicinal leech therapy, Ishagh Publishing Co. [In Persian].
[35]. Hildebrandt, J. P., Lemke, S. (2011) Small bite, large impact–saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 98, No. 12, PP. 995-1008.
[36]. Baskova, I., Kostrjukova, E., Vlasova, M., Kharitonova, O., Levitskiy, S., Zavalova, L., . . . Lazarev V. (2008) Proteins and peptides of the salivary gland secretion of medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis, Biochemistry, Moscow, Vol. 73, No. 3, PP. 315-320.
[37]. Sig, A. K., Guney, M., Guclu, A. U., Ozmen, E. (2017) Medicinal leech therapy-an overall perspective, Journal of Integrative Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 4, PP. 337-343.
[38]. Markwardtm F. (1955) Untersuchungen uber Hirudin, Naturwissenshaften, Vol. 55, PP. 52:537.
[39]. Hoet, B., Close, P., Vermylen, J., Verstraete, M. (1990) Hirudo medicinalis and hirudin. In: Poller L, ed. Recent advances in blood coagulation, Vol. 3. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, PP. 22344.
[40]. White, H. D., Chew, D. P. (2002) Bivalirudin: an anticoagulant for acute coronary syndromes and coronary interventions, Expert Opin Pharmacother, Vol. 3, PP. 777-788.
[41]. Markwardt, F. (1993) Hirudin: The Famous Anticoagulant Agent. In: Claeson G, Scully MF, Kakkar VV, Deadman J. eds. The Design of Synthetic Inhibitors of Thrombin, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 34. Springer, Boston, PP. 191-211.
[42]. Fink, E., Rehm, H., Gippner, C., Bode, W., Eulitz, M., Machleidt, W., Fritz, H. (1986) The primary structure of bdellin B-3 from the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Bdellin B-3 is a compact proteinase inhibitor of a "non-classical" Kazal type. It is present in the leech in a high molecular mass form, Biological Chemistry Hoppe Seyler, Vol. 367, No. 12, PP. 1235-42.
[43]. Rigbi, M., Levy, H., Iraqi, F.,  Teitelbaum, M., Orevi, M.,  Alajoutsijärvi, A.,  Horovitz, A., Galun, R. (1987) The saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, Biochemical characterization of the high molecular weight fraction, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B., Vol. 87, No. 3, PP. 567-73.
[44]. Sig, A. K., Guney, M., Guclu, A. U., Ozmenc, E. (2017) Medicinal leech therapy-an overall perspective, Integrative Medicine Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, PP. 337–343.
[45]. Abdualkader, A. M., Ghawi, A. M., Alaama, M., Awang, M., and  Merzouk, A. (2013) Leech Therapeutic Applications, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 75, No. 2, PP. 127–137.
[46]. Kurdymov, A. S., Manuvera, V. A., Baskova, I. P., Lazarev, V. N. (2015) A comparison of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant isoforms of thrombolytic and antibacterial protein—Destabilase-Lysozyme from medicinal leech, BMC Biochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 27, PP. 1-11.
[47]. Linker, A., Hoffman, Ph., Mayer, K. (1957) The Hyaluronidase of the Leech: An Endoglucuronidase, Nature, Vol. 180, PP. 810–811.
[48]. Jin, P., Kang, Z., Zhang, N., Du, G., Chen, J. (2015) High-yield novel leech hyaluronidase to expedite the preparation of specific hyaluronan oligomers, Scientific Reports, Vol 4, No. 4471, PP. 1-8.
[49]. Rabinowitz, J. L. (1996) Salivary lipid profiles of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), Lipids, Vol. 31, No. 8, PP. 887-8.
[50]. Van Der Lande, V. M. (1968) Esterase activity in certain glands of leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea), Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, PP. 447-456.
[51]. Kraemer, B. A., Korber, K. E., Aquino, T. I., Engleman, A. (1988) Use of leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a review, Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Vol. 4, PP. 381-386.
[52]. Krashenyuk, A. I. Coronavirus COVID-19 Theoretical and Practical Substantiations for Reducing Mortality from Complications, Acta Scientific Medical Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 6, PP. 115-123.
[53]. Bestle, D., Heindl, M.R., Limburg, H., Lam Van, T. V., Pilgram, O., Moulton, H., Stein, D. A., Hardes, K., Eicmann, M., Dolnik, O., Rohde, C., Becker, S., Klenk, H. D., Garten, W., Steinmetzer, T., Botthcer- Friebertshäuser, E. (2020) TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cells and provide promising drug targets. University of Oxford, Immunology network.
[54]. Darabi-Darestani, K. (2010) Seasonal variation in abundance and life cycle of leech Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005 in Northern Iran, MSc. Thesis, University of Tehran, 2010.       
[55]. Jafarifar, F. (2013) Life cycle and gonad histology of the medicinal leech Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005 and effect of different factors on the breeding, MSc. Thesis, University of Tehran.          
[56]. Ghobadi, S. (2012) Study of medicinal leech, Hirudo orientalis development from cocoon formation to maturation, MSc. Thesis, University of Tehran.
[57]. Sheikhzadeh-Najjar, M. (2015) Relationships between symbiotic bacteria and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005 during the life cycle, Msc. Thesis, University of Tehran.
[58]. Darabi-Darestani, K. (2016) Freshwater leeches of Alborz region basins and a biosystematics approach to medicinal leech, Hirudo orientalis, PhD. Thesis, University of Tehran.     
[59]. Sargolzaee, S. (2017) Comparative study of growth and survival in two populations of Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005, Msc. Thesis, University of Tehran.             
[60]. Salimian, F. (2019) The comparison of the life cycle of two species of medicinal leeches Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005 and Hirudo verbena Carena, 1820, Msc. Thesis. University of Tehran.
[61]. Salehof, M. (2020) Age dependent changes in protein profiles of Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005, Msc. Thesis. University of Tehran.
[62]. Roohi Aminjan, A. (2018) Optimization of breeding of Hirudo orientalis Utevsky & Trontelj, 2005, Postdoctoral project, Funded by Iran National Science Foundation, Iran.
[63]. Malek, M., Jafarifar, F., Parsa, H., Salehi, H. (2019) Culture of a new medicinal leech: growth, survival and reproduction of Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj, 2005 under laboratory conditions, Journal of Natural History, Vol. 53, Nos. 11-12, PP. 627–637.
[64]. Darabi-Darestani, K., Sari, A., Sarafrazi, A. (2016) Five new records and an annotated checklist of the leeches (Annelida: Hirudinida) of Iran, Zootaxa, Vol. 4170, No. 1, PP. 41-70.
[65]. Darabi-Darestani, K., Malek, M. (2011) Seasonal variation in the occurrence of the medicinal leech Hirudo orientalis in Guilan Province, Iran, Aquatic Biology, Vol. 11, PP. 289–294.