نوع مقاله : مقاله ترویجی
مرکز سیاست گذاری و برنامه ریزی فناوری وزارت علوم ، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Technological clusters refer to an integrated entities composed of professionals with expertise knowledge, venture capital, companies with superior know-how and technologies that operate within an appropriate physical organizational set up. They are often located in specific geographical areas within the proximity of universities, science and technology parks and research centers where they are administered with a market oriented management that produce products and provide scientific services. Nowadays, these clusters are considered as a model for science-based economic development and as such economists consider clusters and networks as playing a key role in speedy utilization of innovation where they provide a competitive edge in worldwide competition. In the definition of clusters, factors such as geographic concentration and coherence or similarity of activity areas, specialty and division of functions that lead to inter-group working relationship as well as internal dependencies of technological companies, are emphasized. An important point in connection with economic development of societies that have been able to promote conditions for establishing clusters, is the fact that these developments and advantages gained, are consequence of setting up of such clusters. The most significant advantages include: increase in employment opportunities, knowledge exchanges and as a result, promotion of scientific know-how among companies, upgrade of level of specialty knowledge, strengthening of social communication. The u