عنوان مقاله [English]
Science and knowledge is one of the shining peaks of the natural evolution of the human mind, and modern science is a turning point in cultural progress. The scientific revolution occurred between 1500 and 1700 AD. This was the result of a new broad interpretation after the Renaissance. In the 17th century, science was represented as a well-defined social activity in scientific societies. It was at this time that mankind was able to open a new window to the universe by removing the obstacles that kept thinking behind the wall of ignorance. Perhaps, the Renaissance can be considered the greatest transformation to enter the new world of science and thought. With a historical approach, this article deals with the comparative study of scientific policy in four countries, Italy, France, Great Britain, and Iran, and with the paradigm of institutionalism, it analyzes the role of these scientific institutions in advancing science and knowledge in these countries and the world with a descriptive and analytical method. the payment.
How societies and scientific institutions are formed, their goals and duties, how to choose members of scientific academies, the role of governments in these institutions and how to influence the process of science development and progress in the countries in question form the main topic of this article.